Difference Between C and C++

What is the Difference Between C and C++

Difference Between C and C++

Difference Between C and C++

As you can see the image C is small then C++. It means that C is a subset of C++.

Namaste, My name is Nitin Kumar I am here to write a blog on the topic Difference between C and C++. We will discuss all the important key factors of the Difference between C and C++. So lets began our one of the important topic Difference between C and C++.

30 Difference Between C and C++ in Tabular Form

C Programming LanguageC++ Programming Language
C does not have the support of virtual and friend functions. C++ supports virtual and friend function.
C doesn’t provide the string or boolean data types. C++ provides Boolean and string data types.
C support primitive and built-in data types. C++ supports both user-defined and built-in data types
C is not compatible. C++ is compatible with generic programming.
C supports only pointers. C++ supports both pointers and references.
C does not have an inline function. C++ has inline function.
C does not have the extern function. C++ has extern function.
In C data is Unsecured. In c++ data is not accessible to extern functions. Hence, data is more secure.
C follows the top-down approach. C++ follows bottom-up approach.
In the C variable has to be defined at the beginning of the function. In c++ variable can be defined anywhere in the function.
In C file extension .c (dot c) is used. In C++ file extension .cpp (dot cpp) is used.
In C main() function can be called by any other function. In C++ main() function cannot be called by any other function.
Inheritance is not possible in C programming language. Inheritance is possible in C++.
C is known as the mid-level programming language. C++ is known as a High-level programming language.
C++ operators are not valid and run in C. C operators are valid and supported in C++.
C provides malloc() and calloc() functions for Dynamic memory allocation. C++ provides an newoperator for memory allocation.
C supports free() functions for memory de-allocation. C++ use delete operator for memory de-allocation.
C does not provide direct support for error handling. C++ provides support for exception handling.
C programming Language was developed by Dennis Ritchie. C++ programming language was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup.
C is a subset of C++. C++ is a superset of C.
C cannot run the code of C++. C++ can run most of the C code.
C only support procedural programming paradigm for code development. C++ supports both procedural and object-oriented paradigms.
C is known as procedure programming language(POPS). C++ is known as both Procedure Programming language(POPS) and Object-oriented programming language(OOPS).
In C, data are free entities and can be manipulated by outside code. In C++ Encapsulation hides the data to ensure that data structures and operator are used as intended.
C is known as Function Driven Programming language. C++ is known as an Object driven programming language.
C does not support function or operator overloading. C++ supports function and operator overloading.
C does not have namespace feature. C++ supports NAMESPACE feature which avoids name collision.
C use “scanf” and “printf” function for input and output. C++ us “cout” and “cin” object for input and output.
C does not supports reference variables. C++ supports reference variables.
These are the major Difference betwween C and C++.

 

PRESENTATION ON DIFFERENCE BETWEEN C AND C++

What is the difference between C and C++?
I hope you got all the answers to the question What is the difference between C and C++. We have discussed all the differences between C and C++ in tabular form. Now let’s discuss it briefly.

If I say that C++ is a better language than C programming language it won’t be wrong. Because it supports OOPS(Object Oriented Programming Language), it supports Encapsulation, it supports Data Hiding.

C language was developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie in AT& T’s Bell Laboratories of USA new jersey.  Where C++ language was developed in 1979 by Bjarne Stroustrup in 1979 the C++ is known as C with Classes later on in 1983 its name changed to C++.

We can say that C is a subset of C++ where C++ is a superset of C. Because C doesn’t support and run the code of C++  where C++ can run and support most of the code of the C programming language.

C follows the top-down approach while working whereas C++ work or follows the bottom-up approach. C is less secured than C++ because in C++ data is not accessible to extern functions. Hence, In C++ data is more secure as compared to c programming language.

What is C Programming Language?

INTRODUCTION

The programming language C was developed in the early 1970s by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Laboratories to be used by the UNIX operating system. It was named •C’ because many of its features were derived from an earlier language called Although C was designed for implementing system software, it was later on widely used for developing portable application software.

C is one of the most popular programming languages. It is being used on several different software platforms. In a nutshell, there are a few computer architectures for which a C compiler does not exist.

It is a good idea to learn C because few other programming languages such as C++ and Java are also based on C which means you “ill be able to learn them more easily in the future.

Background

 Like many other modern languages, C is derived from ALGOL (the first language to use a block structure). Although  ALGOL was not accepted widely in the United States, it was widely used in Europe. ALGOL’s introduction in the 1960s led the way for the development of structured programming concepts.

Before C, several other programming languages were developed, For example, in 1967 Martin Richards developed a language called BCPL (Basic Combined Programming Language). BCPL was basically a type-less (had no concept of data types) language which facilitated direct access to memory. This made it useful for system programmers. Then in 1970. Ken Thompson developed a language called B. B was used to develop the first version of UNIX. C was developed by Dennis Ritchie in 1972 that took concepts from ALGOL, BCPL, and B. In addition to the concepts of these languages, C also supports the concept of data types. Since UNIX operating system was also developed at Bell Laboratories along with C language, C and UNIX are strongly associated with each other.

For many years, C was mainly used in academic institutions, but with the release of different C compilers for commercial use and popularity of UNIX. C was widely accepted by computer professionals. C (also known as Traditional C) was documented and popularized in the book. The C Programming Language by Brian W. Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie in 1978. This book was so popular that the language came to be known as “K&R C”. The tremendous growth of C language resulted in the development of different versions of the language that was similar but incompatible with each other.

Therefore, in the year 1983, the American National Standard Institute(ANSI) started working on defining the standard for C. This standard was approved in December 1989 and came to be known as ANSI C. In 1990, the International Standards Organizations(ISO) adopted the ANSI standard. This version of C came to be known as the new modified version was known as C95. During 1990s C++ and JAVA Programming languages became popular among the users so the standardization committee of C felt that a new feature of C++/JAVA if added to C, would enhance its usefulness. So, in 1999 when some significant changes were made to C95, the modified version came to be known as C99. Some of the changes made in the C99 version are as follows:-

  •  Extension to the character types, so that they can support even non-English characters.
  • Boolean data type.
  • Extension to the integer data type.
  • Including type definitions in the for the statement.
  • The inclusion of imaginary and complex types.
  • Addition of//, better known as the C++ style line comment.
 
Taxonomy of C programming Language
Taxonomy of C programming Language

Characteristics of C

C is a robust language whose rich set of built-in functions and operators can be used to write complex programs. The C compiler combines the features of assembly languages and high-level languages, which makes it best suited for writing system software as well as business packages.

Some basic characteristics of C language that defines the language and have led to its popularity as a programming language are listed below.

• C is a high-level programming language which enables the programmer to concentrate on the problem at hand and not worry about the machine code on which the program would be run.

• Small size—C has only 32 keywords. This makes it relatively easy to learn as compared to other languages.

• C makes extensive use of function calls.

• C is well suited for structured programming. In this programming approach, C enables the users to think of the problem in terms of functions/modules where the collection of all the modules makes up a complete program. This feature facilitates easiness in program debugging, testing, and maintenance.

• Unlike PASCAL it supports loose typing (as a character can be treated as an integer and vice versa).

• Structured language as the code can be organized as a
collection of one or more functions.

• Stable language. ANSI C was created in 1983 and since then it has not been revised.

• Quick language as a well-written C program is likely to be as quick as or quicker than a program written in any other language. Since C programs make use of operators and data types, they are fast and efficient. For example, a program was written to increment a value from 0—15000 using BASIC would take 50 seconds whereas a C program would do the same in just 1 second.

• Facilitates low level (bitwise) programming.

• Supports pointers to refer computer memory, array, structures, and functions.

• Core language. C is a core language as many other programming languages (like C+F, Java, Perl, etc.) are based on C. If you know C, learning other computer
languages becomes much easier.

Uses of C

C is a very Simple language that widely used by software professionals around the globe, The uses of C language can be summarized as follows:

• C language is primarily used for system programming. The portability the ability to access specified hardware addresses. and low runtime demand on system resources makes it a good choice for implementing operating systems and embedded system applications.

• C has been so widely accepted by professionals that corn-pilers, libraries. and interpreters of other programming languages are often implemented in C.

• For portability and convenience reasons, C is sometimes used as an intermediate language for implementations of other languages. Examples of compilers who use C’ these are BitC’, Gambit, the Gla.sgo w I hrskell Compiler Basically, C was designed as a programming language and was not meant to be used as a compiler target language. Therefore, although C can be used as an intermediate language it is not an ideal option. This led to the development of C-based intermediate languages such as cv

• C is widely used to implement end-user applications.

 

What is C++ Programming Language?

INTRODUCTION

C++ is an object-oriented programming language. It was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup at AT&T Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey, USA, in the early 1980’s. Stroustrup, an admirer(fan) of Simula67 and a strong supporter of C, wanted to combine the best of both the languages and create a more powerful language that could support object-oriented programming features and still retain the power and elegance of C. The result was C++. 
Therefore, C++ is an extension of C with a major addition of the class construct feature of Simula67. Since the class was a major addition to the original C language, Stroustrup initially called the new language ” C with Classes”. However, later in 1983, the name was changed to C++. The idea of C++ comes from the C increment operator ++, thereby suggesting that C++ is an augmented(incremented) version of C.
 
During early 1990,s the language underwent a number of improvements and changes. In November 1997, the ANSI/ISO standards committee standardized these changes and added several new features to the language specifications. 
 
C++ is a superset of C. Most of what we already know about C applies to C++ also.
Therefore, almost all C programs are also C++ programs. 
 
The most important facilities that C++  adds on to C are classes, inheritance, function overloading, and operator overloading. These features enable creating of the abstract data type. Inherit properties from existing data type and support polymorphism thereby making C++ truly object-oriented language.
 
The Object-oriented feature in C++ allows programs to build large programs with clarity, extensibility, and ease of maintainability in cooperating the spirit and efficiency of C. The addition of new feature has transformed C from a language that currently facilities top-down, structure design to one that provides bottom-up,  Object-oriented design.

Applications Of C++

C++ is a versatile language for handling very large programs. It is suitable for virtually any programming task including the development of editors, compilers, databases, communication system and any complex real-life application system. 

  • Since, C++ allows us to create a hierarchy -related object, we can build special object-oriented libraries which can be used later by many programmers.
  • While C++ is able to map the real-world problem properly, the C part of C++ gives the language the ability to get close to the machine-level details.
  • C++ programs are easily maintainable and expandable. When a new feature needs to be implemented, it is very easy to add to the existing structure of an object.
  • It is expected that C++ will replace C as a general- purpose language in the near future.

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