What is Prototyping Model in Software Engineering

What is prototyping Model in Software Engineering?


The Prototyping Models start with requirements gathering developer and customer meet and define overall object tips for the software, identifying requirements and outline area where the further definition is mandatory. A “quick design” then occurs the quick design focuses on the representation of those aspects of the software that will be visible to the customer.
For example input approaches and output formats.
The quick design leads to the construction of the prototype. The prototype is evaluated by the customer(user) and used to refine requirements for the software to be developed. The repetition occurs as the prototype is found to satisfy the needs of the customer while at the same time enabling the developer to better understand what needs to be done.

Prototype Model is generally used when the requirements are unclear. It is used when the customer is unclear about the details of the input, process and the output needs of the software.

Software Prototyping refers to the activity of creating prototypes of software applications i.e.< Incomplete version of the software program being developed.

A Prototype Model is a Tag Implementation of the system.

Protyping model
Protyping model

It is usually built using shortcuts. The shortcuts might involve using inefficient. Inaccurate, or dummy functions.

In a process we can show a table-look-up instead of showing actual computation.

In this prototyping quick iteration are planned and quick modeling occurs. The Prototype is implemented and then assessed by the customer or user for their feedback to refine requirements for the software.

Points to Remember 

  • In this model before starting the actual development we have to build a prototype (rule) of the software system and then according to the prototype input-output is identified and the issue is detected.
  • A prototype is a limited edition of the software
  • A prototype tells the technical issues associated with product development.
  • It illustrates the user’s input and output format with interactive interaction.
  • The prototype model is the plan to address the issue and data after that it is thrown away.
  • Prototype is developed continuously until it is approved by the client and SRS is developed according to it.
  • After this cycle next phase of design, coding, testing and maintianence are encountered.

Types Of Prototype

There are two types of prototype model. They are:-

Static Prototype

Entire prototype of the requirement is stored in a word document with explanation and how the finished product will look like.

Dynamic Prototype

It is like a dummy page, made out of HTML with tags and links of different pages representing features of the project.

Now let’s talk about the different phases of the Prototype Model

Phases Of the Prototype Model in Software Engineering

What is Prototype model in Software engineering

Prototype Model consists of different phases. Requirement Gathering, Build Prototype, Quick Design, Review and Refinement, Development, Coding, Testing, and Maintenance Phase included. So now let discuss briefly these phases.

Requirements Gathering Phase

The first phase of the prototype Model. A Prototype model begins with the requirement analysis of the system are defined in detail. The user is interviewed in order to know the requirements of the system.
Analysts and engineers communicate with the client and the end user to know their ideas on what the software should provide and which features they want the software to include.
The relation between various modules is established at this stage like algorithms and diagram definitions.

Quick Design

When requirements are known, a quick design for the system is created. It is not a detailed design, it includes the important aspects of the system, which gives an idea of the system to the user.

  • Aim to just check with client does he want this or not.
  • Before building the whole application we are crosschecking with the client.
Quick Design phase
Quick Design phase

Build Prototype

Information gathering from quick design is modified to form a prototype. It represents a ‘rough’ design of the required system.

Customer Evaluation Of Prototype

The build prototype is presented to the the customer for his/her evaluation.

Review and Refinement

Once the user evaluates the prototype, it is refined according to the requirements. When the user is satisfied with the developed prototype, a final system is developed based on the final prototype. Which is developed by the iterative method means we design the system according to the final prototype, after that implement, test the product to find the error and at last we maintain the system.

Development Phase

  • Development phase is the step in which design is translated into the machine-readable form.
  • If design phase is done in a efficient manner than the development can be done effectively. programs and loops created into this phase.
  • Here, all the software are devided into small modules.

Testing Phase

In this stage, Both individual components and integrated the whole are methodically verified ensure that they are error free and fully meet with the requirements.

There are two types of Testing. They are:-

Black Box Testing :- Internal system design is not considered in this type of testing. Test are based on requirements and functionality.

White Box Testing:- This testing is based on knowledge of the internal logic of an application’s code.

Maintenance Phase

The final phase of this model, in which the completed software handover to the client after alpha and beta testing.

This includes modification and updates done in order to keep the software usable over a long period of time.

Advantages Of Prototype Model

  1. Prototype Model is used to test every detail of the final product before the product is buil.
  2. Results is higher user satisfication.
  3. Users are better at evaluating an existing system.
  4. Prototype models brings the user into the process early.
  5. The Prototyping Model serves to clarify requirements, which are not clear, hence ambiguity and improving communication between developer and user.

Disadvantages of The Prototype Model

  1. If the user is not satisfied with developed prototye, then a new prototype is developed. This process goes on untill a perfect prototype evolves. Thus this model is time consuming and expensive.
  2. The developer loses focus of the real pupose of the prototype and comprosises on the quality of the product.
  3. Prototype model can lead to the false expecattions. It often creates a situation where the user believes that the development of the system is finished when it is not.

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