What is Emergence of Software Engineering

Q. What is Emergence of Software Engineering ?

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Emergence Of Software Engineering

1)Early Computer Programming

In the initial state, computers were very slow and too complex. For a simple program took more time on those programs were usually were written in assembly language. Program length was typically limited to about few 100 of lines. At that times programmers wrote the program without formulating any proper plan or designed. This type of style of programming is known as exploration programming style.

2)High-Level Programming Language

The computer becomes a faster test with the introduction of semiconductor technology. Faster semi-conductor translator replaced vacuum tube circuits in a computer. Then it was easy to solve the large and complex problem. At this time high-level languages are FORTRANALGOL, and COBOL  where introduced. However, programmers were still using the exploratory style of software development.

3)Control Flow-Based Design

As the size and complexity of program kept on increasing so programmers found it too difficult not only to write correct programs but also to understand and maintain programs written by other. To remove this problem programmer advised other programmers to pay particular attention to be designed of a program that is control flow structure.

A program control-flow structure indicates the sequence in which the program’s instruction is executed. So for good control flow structure, the flowchart technic was developed. Even today the flow chart technic is being used to represent and design algorithm programs.

4)Data Structure Oriented Design

The computer becomes more powerful with the integrated circuit. It could be used to solve the complex problem. It was developed to pay attention to the design of its control structure. Design techniques based on the principle are called Data Structure Oriented Design Technique. Data Structure Oriented Design Technique is the Jackson structure programming(JSD) technique developed by Michael Jackson in 1975. In JSP a program data structure is first design using selection and iteration.

5) Data Flow Oriented Design

As computer became still faster and more powerful with the introduction of Very Large Scale Integrated Circuit (VLSI) and some new architectural concept. The data flow oriented techniques that the measurement data item handled by the system. Must we identify and the processing required on these data items to produce the desired output should be determined.

The function also called a processor and data items that are exchanged between different functions are represented in a diagram known as Data Flow Diagram.

6)Object-Oriented Design 

Data Flow Oriented Design envolved into object-oriented design techniques. In object-oriented Design technique where the natural designed where the natural designed techniques( object) relate to the problem are first to identify and then the relationship among the object such as reference and inheritance are determined. So it can be seen that remarkable improvements to the software design technique occur. In addition to changes made to the software design technique several other new concepts and technique for effective software development, there also introduced these new techniques include life cycle models, specification technique, project management technique, testing technique, debugging technique, quality assurance technique, software measurement technique etc.

HISTORY &NEED OF SOFTWARE ENGINEERING

  • More Focus On Hardware:- In the Early days of computing the main concern was with building or acquiring the Hardware. If the software didn’t work, people thought that it would be easy enough to change it until it did work.
  • Software Cost Consideration:- The cost of software amounted to such a small fraction of the cost of the hardware that no one considered it very important to manage its development. The time for people was assumed to save machine time. Making the people process efficient received little priority.
  • Meeting People’s Expectations:When computing measured, programs became more complex and larger. A team effort is required for the program to be routinely specified, written, operated and maintained so people expectations would be fulfilled.
  • Exceeded Cost: As the program became larger and complex and the time required to write programs and their costs began to exceed all estimates.
  • Time Development: Programmers started to take weeks, months or years longer than expected to complete. The system turned over the client frequently did not work correctly because the money or time had run out before the programs could be made to work as originally intended.
  • Quality Concern:- As computer and their programs were used for the more vital task, like monitoring Life support equipment. Program Quality also became a new concern.
  • Change-Expensive:- Making a change within a complex program, turned out to be very expensive. It was quite easier to throw a program than to expect from program to do thing different slightly.
  • Fast and Rapid Change in Hardware and Software:- As tubes were replaced by transistors Integrated circuits. The cost of Hardware which had to be increased was getting. The cost of hardware which had to be increased was getting low. The times and costs to develop to the hardware, that they could be ignored.
  • Wrong Analysis Of Client Requirement:- Programmers were often thought that they had understood the client requirements. Once the program had been written, the client began to express dissatisfaction.
  • No Satisfactory System: Unforunately, untill several years ago no good method of representation existed to describe satisfactory system as complex as those that are being developed today.

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