Intermediate COCOMO Model in Software Engineering

Intermediate cocomo model in software engineering-

Cocomo(Constructive Cost Model) is  modelregression based on LOC, i.e. the number of code of lines It is a proceduralcost estimation model for software projects and is often used as a process ofreliable predicting the various parameters associated with making projects,such as size, effort, cost, time and quality. It was proposed by Barry Bohum in1970 and it is based on the study of 63 projects, which make it one of thebest-documented models.

The key parameters defining the quality of any software products, which are also a result of Kokomo, are primarily eagerness and schedules: Efforts: The amount of labor required to complete a task.

 It is measured in individual-month units. ‘ Schedule: Bus means the amount of time required to complete the job, which, of course, is proportional to the effort. It is measured in units of time such as weeks, months.

Different models of Cocomo have been proposed to predict the cost estimation at different levels, which is necessary based on the need for accuracy and correctness. All these models can be applied to different types of projects, whose features determine the value of the continuous use in subsequent calculations. These features related to different system types are outlined below.


Overview of COCOMO


The COCOMO estimation cost model is used by thousands of project software managers, and is based on the study of hundreds of software projects. Unlike other cost estimation models, COCOMO is an open model, so all details are published, which include:

•Underlying cost estimation equation • Every assumption made in the model (suchas “the project will enjoy good management”) • Every definition (suchas the precise definition of the product design phase of a project) • The costsinvolved in an estimate have been clearly stated (such as project managers, notthe secretary)

Because COCOMO is well defined, and because it does not rely on proprietary estimate algorithms, SystemStar provides these benefits to its users: • The estimation of COCOMO is comparable to the projections made by ways of relying on proprietary models. Is more purposeful and repeatable • COCOMO is your software development environment Can be calibrated to reflect more accurate estimates.

SystemStar is a loyal implementation of the COCOMO model which is easy to use on small projects, and yet powerful enough to plan and control these projects.

Generally, you will start with just a rough description of the software system, which you are developing,

And you’ll use SystemStar to give you an early estimate of the appropriate time and staffing levels. As you refine your knowledge of the problem, and as you design more of the system, you can use Systemstar to produce even more sophisticated estimates.


SystemStar allows you to define a software structure to meet your needs. Your initial estimate can be made based on a system that has 3,000 lines of code. Your second estimate can be more sophisticated so you can now understand that your system will consist of two subsystems (and you will have a more accurate idea of ​​how many lines of code will be in each subsystem).Your next guess will continue the process – You can use SystemStar to define components of each subsystem. SystemStar allows you to continue this process until you come to the level of expansion that meets your needs.


One word of warning: UsingSystemStar to make software cost estimates is so easy, it is possible to misuseit – every SystemStar user should spend time learning the underlying COCOMObeliefs and definitions from software engineering economics and software costeconomics . COCOMO II.

Definitions of Bohum’s biological, semicolon and embedded system:

1) Bohum’s biological – A software project is called an organic type if the required team size is sufficiently small, then the problem is well understood and resolved in the past and the team members have a problem about the problem There is a slight experience.


2) semicolon – A software project is called semi-different types if important features such as team size Experience, the knowledge of various programming environments is between biological and embedded. Projects classified as semi-detached are comparatively less familiar and require more experience and better guidance and creativity to develop compared to organic people. Such as: compiler or different embedded systems can be considered semi-detached type.

3) Embedded – Asoftware project requiring the highest level of complexity, creativity andexperience required under this category. Such software requires a larger teamsize than the other two models, and developers need to be adequatelyexperienced and creative to develop such complex models. All the above systemtypes use different values ​​of the constant used in the calculation of theEfforts.

Calculation. Model Type: There is a hierarchy of three fast, detailed and accurate forms in COCOMO. According to our needs any of the three forms can be adopted. These are the

Types of COCOMO models: 1. Basic coco model 2. Intermediate COCOMO model 3. Detailed coco model can be used for quick and little calculation of the first level, basic COCOMO software costs. Due to the absence of adequate factor considerations, its accuracy is restricted to some extent.

Intermediate COCOMO In Cost Drivers takes account and detailed COCOMO dally accounts for the effect of different project steps, i.e. in case of detail for both the cost drivers and also the calculations are also phased, so that more accurate results Can be generated These two models have been discussed below.

Basic model – The above formula is used for cost estimation for basic COCOMO models, and it is also used in later models. Constant value for basic models for different categories of system and B: This effort is measured in person-month and as per the formula it is dependent on the kilo-lines of the code. These formulas are used in basic model calculations, because different factors such as reliability, expertise are not given much attention, so the estimation is thicker.

Intermediate model– Basic COCOMO model assumes that the effort is simply a function of the numberof lines of code, and according to some software some constants have beenassessed. However, in fact, the effort and schedule of any system can not becalculated based on the lines of code only. For him, various other factors likecredibility, experience, ability. Cost to these factors
Is known as a driver and theIntermediate model uses 15 such drivers for cost estimates. Classification ofcost drivers and their characteristics: (i) Product attributes – • Requiredsoftware reliability limit • Size of application database • Complexity ofproduct (ii) Hardware features
• Interrupted run-time performance• Memory loss • Virtual machine environment instability • Time of requiredvoting (iii) Personnel characteristics – • Analyst capacity • Softwareengineering capacity • Application experience • Virtual machine experience •Experience programming language (iv) ) Project Features – • Use of Software Tools• Application of Software Engineering Methods • Essential Development Schedule

• Detailed explanation – Detailed COCOMO software incorporates allthe features of the intermediate version with the assessment of cost driverimpact at each stage of the engineering process. The detailed model usesdifferent attempts multiplier for each cost driver attribute. In the detailedcocoa, the entire software is divided into different modules and then we applyCOCOMO in different modules to estimate the effort and then try to sum it up.

There are six stages of detailed COCOMO: • Plan and requirements • System framework • Detailed composition • module code and test • integration and testing • Cost creative model effort is calculated as a function of the size of the program and the software life cycle According to each stage, a set of cost drivers is given.

italso allows you to define the software structure to meet your need. Yourinitial

estimatecan be made based on a system that has more than 3,000 lines of code. 

itcan be more sophisticated so you can now understand that your system willconsist of two

subsystems(and you will have a more accurate idea of how many lines of code will be in

eachsubsystem).Your next guess will continue the process – You can use SystemStarto

definecomponents of each subsystem. SystemStar allows you to continue this processuntil

youcome to the level of expansion that meets your needs.

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